Survey and Research Report
Ada Manufacturing Company
and location of the Property: The Property known as the Ada
Manufacturing Company is located at 630 West 11th Street in Charlotte, North
address and telephone number of the current owner of the Property:
ADM Milling Co.,
Decatur, IL 62525-9974
Representative photographs of the Property: This report contains
representative photographs of the Property.
4. A map
depicting the location of the Property: This report contains a map
depicting the location of the Property. The UTM is 17 5144 97E 3899225N
Current Deed Book Reference to the Property:
parcel number is 07842109. The current deed book number is 04016-486
(12/19/1977). The current tax value of the property is $141,750.
6. A brief historical sketch of the Property:
This report contains a brief historical sketch of the property
brief architectural description of the Property:
This report contains a brief
architectural description of the property
Documentation of why and in what ways the Property meets the criteria for
designation set forth in North Carolina General Statute 160A-400.5:
Special significance in terms of
its history, architecture and/or cultural importance:
The Commission judges that the
Property known as Ada Manufacturing Company does possess special
significance in terms of Charlotte-Mecklenburg. The Commission bases its
judgment on the following considerations:
1) Ada Manufacturing
Company is representative of a new phase of industrial development in
Charlotte. The mill was built at the beginning of a dynamic period of
urbanization and industrialization, which transformed the city from a
courthouse town into a regional center for manufacturing, commerce, and
Ada Manufacturing Company was financed under a plan developed by local civic
leader and engineer D.A. Tompkins who advocated selling shares in an
installment plan. By using Tompkins’s method, investors were able to build
two other mills in 1888 in addition to Ada Manufacturing.
3) The Ada Manufacturing
Company was built and equipped by D.A. Tompkins. Tompkins was highly
influential in Charlotte’s transition from small town to New South city, and
he used his many talents to effect this change; he was an engineer and a
businessman, he owned three newspapers, and he wrote extensively on the
topic of cotton, cotton processing, the construction and management of
textile mills, and how to raise the capital to build new factories.
4) The Ada Manufacturing
Company and other factories like it built in the late nineteenth century
encouraged the rural to urban migration of small farmers, increasing the
Ada Manufacturing Company is the most intact example pre-1890 cotton mill
construction in Charlotte.
The Ada Manufacturing Company is
an important example of the use of Italianate architectural details on a
commercial building in Mecklenburg County.
Integrity of design, setting,
workmanship, materials, feeling and/or association:
The Commission contends that the
architectural description included in this report demonstrates that the
Property known as Ada Manufacturing Company meets this criterion.
Valorem Tax Appraisal:
The Commission is aware that
designation allows the owner to apply for an automatic deferral of 50% of
the ad valorem taxes on all or any portion of the Property that becomes an
"historic landmark." The current appraised value of the land containing
2.92 acres and the building is $141,750.
Preparation of this Report: March 4, 2003
Prepared by: Stewart Gray and Dr. Paula Stathakis
Company - Historical Context
The Ada Manufacturing Company was one of three cotton
mills that opened in Charlotte in 1889. While not the first textile mills in
the city, the Ada, Alpha, and Victor Cotton Mills represent the opening
phase of a comparatively more aggressive period of textile and industrial
development and general economic diversification in the county. Historians
of Mecklenburg County agree that Charlotte's location in the Piedmont region
was a principal aspect in its transformation from a small hinterland
courthouse town to the primary industrial center of the region.1
However, it was not until the 1880s that local investors and entrepreneurs
began to capitalize on the county’s natural attributes and resources. In a
pattern similar to other robust New South towns of the post war era, dynamic
growth was spearheaded by new men who were not Charlotte natives, but who
understood how to capture Charlotte’s potential, and more importantly, how to
This change in the county’s economic fortune occurred
slowly; and even at the height of its manufacturing output, the county
remained agricultural and rural in character. Although Charlotte made
significant advances in the post-Civil War period, it did not develop to the
extent that many other Southern cities did. In 1870, except for the
Mecklenburg Iron Works, there were no major
manufacturing concerns in Charlotte even though two major railroad lines
converged in the city.2
In a general report about the State’s economic prospects, Vice-Consul H. E.
Heide wrote, “The majority of the cotton and woolen manufacturing
are situated in the central portion of the State, where
numerous rivers and water courses furnish almost unlimited water power.
Nearly all the industries of the state are in a very backward condition
owing to the want of capital to develop its great natural resources. The
greater part of the available capital the State possessed was lost in the
late civil war.”3
This economic languor would soon give way in the wake
of an outpouring of entrepreneurial and manufacturing initiatives that were
based in agriculture, the primary pillar of the county’s economic base.
Cotton was the core from which most of Charlotte’s new economic enterprises
of the late nineteenth century developed. Cotton would be stored, marketed,
and processed in and around Charlotte; textile engineering and machinery
firms with legions of blue and white collar workers would find jobs in
Charlotte; railroads transported cotton products out of the area; and some of
the profits from all of these activities would be seen in the development of
the downtown area, of new streetcar suburbs, in the increase of the retail
and service sectors, and in the growth of new industrial zones on the
margins of the city. By the late nineteenth century, Mecklenburg farmers,
like most Piedmont farmers, devoted a substantial part of their crop to
cotton. By 1896, over one-half of the cotton produced in North Carolina was
grown in 28 counties, and most of it was grown in Mecklenburg.4
In addition to the proximity of a healthy cotton crop, Charlotte began to
develop the other essential components that would support the new economic
reality that was apparent by the late 1870s. Railroad lines destroyed during
the war were restored, and two new lines were added to the network that
served the county by 1873, making six operational lines by mid-decade.5
By this time Charlotte already had five banks making it a regional financial
By the early 1880s, Charlotte mayor Col. William Johnston introduced a
program to pave, or macadamize city streets. Concurrent with this program,
county agencies began a similar plan to improve county highways. New taxes
paid for most of these programs, and convict labor was used for the construction.7
Thanks in part to improvements in agriculture, banking,
railroad, and infrastructure, Charlotte began to assemble its manufacturing
base. By 1873, the city had 36 manufacturing establishments, and the number
of these increased to 66 as early as 1877. However, city leaders lamented
that in spite of this progress, Charlotte still had no textile mill. In an
attempt to encourage the addition of textile mills to the city’s industrial
landscape, the Board of Aldermen passed an ordinance in 1873 stating any cotton
or woolen mill built in Charlotte would be tax exempt.8
The Aldermen got their wish in 1880 when R.M. and D.W. Oates established the
Charlotte Cotton Mills. In contrast to the earlier cotton mills in
Mecklenburg, Charlotte Cotton Mills was a substantial factory with 6240 spindles.
The Daily Charlotte Observer hailed it as a “new departure” from the
factory style usually seen in Charlotte and predicted that it would not only
contribute to the city’s fortunes, but that it was a harbinger of things to
By the early 1880s, industrial growth in Charlotte became more assertive,
and this expansion was inspired and directed largely by entrepreneurs who
were not Charlotte natives, but who became synonymous with Charlotte in its
new identity as a New South City.
Daniel Augustus Tompkins
Edward Dilworth Latta
Notable among this new breed of civic leaders were
Edward Dilworth Latta and Daniel Augustus Tompkins. Both Latta and Tompkins
redirected Charlotte’s disorganized enthusiasm for change, growth and
progress. They understood the necessity of breaking the region’s reliance on
farming, especially on an agricultural system that operated largely through
crop liens and tenancy. Instead they emphasized industrialization,
urbanization, and scientific agriculture as the viable alternatives of a
Tompkins opened a branch of the Westinghouse Machine
Company of Pittsburgh in Charlotte in 1883, and by 1884 opened the D.A.
Tompkins Company, a premier manufacturer of textile machinery, and a
principal supplier of textile equipment to southern textile mills.11
wore many hats in Charlotte; he was an engineer and a businessman, he owned
three newspapers, and he wrote extensively on the topic of cotton, cotton
processing, the construction and management of textile mills, and how to
raise the capital to build new factories. In his how-to manual for aspiring
mill investors, Tompkins contended that the “average Southern town
underestimates its ability to raise capital to build a cotton factory.
Cotton mill property like all other property is cumulative. No town could
raise the money at once to pay for all the property in it. When the author
first went into business in Charlotte, N.C., in 1884 there was but little
cotton manufacturing in the South, and in Charlotte but one mill. The author
at once formulated a plan for enabling small towns to raise capital for
Tompkins advocated selling shares in an installment plan, a scheme that he
had worked out in his days as a machinist at the Bethlehem Iron Works in
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. He published this plan in several manufacturers’
periodicals, such as the Manufacturers’ Record, and was able to demonstrate
that several southern cotton mills were established through this system.
D. A. Tompkins published extensively on the
topic of cotton mill construction
As three new mills opened in Charlotte in 1889, the Ada
Manufacturing Company among them, Tompkins was able to claim credit for all
three, as they were not only financed on the installment system he
developed, but he built and equipped all three of them.13
The Ada Manufacturing Company was organized in 1888 with $128,000.00 and
opened in 1889.14
The first officers of the mill were Col. John L. Brown, president, M.C.
Mayer, president pro tem, J.J. Gormley, secretary-treasurer, and A.M.
The land for the Ada Manufacturing Company was purchased in February 1888,
comprising roughly twelve and a half acres that were purchased from William
Johnston and S.B. Christenbury.16
Similar to the existing cotton mills in Charlotte, Ada
Manufacturing Company was a one-story structure. A free standing cotton
warehouse stood to the west of the building, and the large, rectangular
brick factory had rooms for picking, carding, drawing, spinning and reeding.
The mill was built on the northwestern edge of town near the junction of
West Eleventh and North Smith Streets and was near tracks for the Southern
Railway and the Seaboard Air Line and near the outer margin of Fourth Ward
and Pinewood Cemetery. The mill had few neighbors in the 1890s;most of them
were other industries.17
When Ada Manufacturing Company began operations in 1889, it had 3120
spindles, with the management anticipating the addition of four more warp
frames within four week’s time making 3952 spindles in all, leaving 4368
more spindles to be added in that year to bring the mill up to its capacity
of 8320 spindles. The first annual meeting of stockholders for the mill
clearly left the impression that the mill was in good hands under the
direction of Brown, Gormley, and Mayer.18
By 1911, the mill had 10,00 spindles, 50 looms, and was updated with
Grinnell Automatic Sprinklers.19
Shortly after the Ada mills began operating, positive reports appeared
regarding the two other new mills opening in 1889, the Alpha and the Victor.
The Alpha Mills were projected to open on February 1st and the Victor Mills
were to open by the end of January.20
Newspaper reports of the impending opening of the mills were optimistic:
The Alpha Cotton Mills began
grinding cards today. The Victor Mills will begin business tomorrow or next
day, and then all of Charlotte’s new enterprises will be in full blast. A
review of them will be interesting. We have now four cotton mills, one
knitting mill, one spoke and handle works, one oil mill, two iron foundries,
one furniture factory, one mattress factory, one cotton tie and bagging
factory, one patent medicine factory, one bellows factory, three machine
shops, one steam grist mill, three sash door and blind factories, two
clothing factories, and a number of smaller institutions.21
Charlotte was poised to enter the twentieth century
with a much stronger and more diversified economic base than it had in 1870,
and clearly change had come rapidly and perhaps dramatically to the city.
Certainly by the turn of the century one sees fewer complaints of war
related impoverishment and more interest in the hustle of the new pace of
life evident in town by the 1890s. The hum of the mills became part of the
rhythm of city life. Mecklenburg never had as many mills as some neighboring
counties, such as Gaston, but the cotton and textile industry were an
essential component of the county’s and the city’s economy. As Holland
Thompson observed in 1906 “The traveler through some parts of North Carolina
is seldom out of sight or hearing of a cotton mill. The tall chimneys rise
beside the railway in nearly every town. Side tracks from the main line lead
to the low brick mills and the clustering tenements…”22
Located at some distance from the working class neighborhoods of the city,
the Ada mill housed employees in a village near the factory.23
Like the Alpha and the Victor mills, Ada Manufacturing often employed entire
families, many of who moved from farms to factory jobs in town. The village
system was falling out of favor in northern manufacturing towns but
flourished in Charlotte and in the surrounding area. One of the leading
proponents of the establishment of mill villages was D.A. Tompkins. Tompkins
wrote extensively about mill villages, living conditions in mill villages,
and he also designed several style of what he called factory cottages, which
were in his estimation “very desirable and pleasing.”24
By the end of the 1920s, the once undeveloped area
around the Ada Mill had filled in with other factories, such as The
Mecklenburg Farmers Federation, the Buckeye Cottonseed Oil plant, a
petroleum plant and a flour mill. Duplexes, boarding houses and small
working class homes were also built in the small side streets adjacent to
the Ada Mill, but the tenants of these houses worked at the other nearby
manufacturing plants. These factories enjoyed a better fate than the Ada
Mill. By 1903, the Ada Manufacturing Company had gone into receivership,
and the mill and all of its equipment was sold on November 3, 1903 to the
Fidelity Manufacturing Company.25
The Fidelity Manufacturing Company was incorporated in August 1903 with a
total authorized capital stock of $500,000.00 that was divided into 5000
shares at a par value of $100.00 each.26
Fidelity Manufacturing purchased the Ada Manufacturing Company for
Fidelity Manufacturing went into receivership in 1922 and was sold to the
Holly Manufacturing Company in April of that year for $153,00.00.28
By 1928, Holly Manufacturing was also out of business, and the plant lay
idle on the eve of the Great Depression. By the 1970s, half of the original
Ada Mill was demolished to make room for the Brookshire Freeway, (the
warehouse and sections for picking, carding and drawing, as well as the
boiler and engine rooms are no longer standing), and today the remainder is
owned by the ADM Milling Company.
See, for example, Thomas W. Hanchett, Charlotte’s Textile Heritage,
available on line at
www.cmhpf.org/educationhanchetttextile.htm; Hanchett, Sorting Out
the New South City, (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina
Press, 1998; Dan L. Morrill, Cotton Mills in New South Charlotte,
available on line at
www.cmhpf.org/educationtextilehistory.htm; Morrill, A History of
Charlotte and Mecklenburg County, available on line at
Carolyn F. Hoffman, The Development of Town and Country: Charlotte
and Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, 1850-1880, (Ph.D.
Dissertation, University of Maryland, 1988), p. 201.
R.E. Heide, Report of Vice-Consul Heide,on the Resources, Trade and
Commerce of North Carolina, (Wilmington, N.C., 1875), pp. 9-10.
North Carolina Collection
North Carolina Board of Agriculture, North Carolina and Its Resources,
(Winston: M.I. and J.C. Stewart, Public Printers and Binders, 1896), p.
158. North Carolina Collection.
Morrill, A History of Charlotte and Mecklenburg, Chapter 7.
Hanchett, Sorting Out the New South City, p. 24.
Daniel Augustus Tompkins, Cotton Mill. Commercial Features. A
Text-book for the Use of Textile Schools and Investors. With Tables
Showing Cost of Machinery and Equipments for MillsMaking Cotton Yarns
and Plain Cotton Cloths , (Charlotte, N.C. Published by the Author,
18990, p. 144.
Hoffman, The Development of Town and Country, pp. 202-203.
According to Dan Morrill, A Survey of Cotton Mills in Charlotte and
Mecklenburg County, July 1997.
www.cmhpf.org/essays/cottonmills.html, cotton mills were built in
the county in the Steel Creek township in the 1850s, and in the
Providence township in 1874; the first textile mill in Charlotte was not
built until 1880-81.
Morrill, Survey of Cotton Mills, p, 2.
Ibid., p. 3.
Tompkins, Cotton Mill, Commercial Features, p. 40.
Morrill, Cotton Mills in New South Charlotte, p. 5.
Charlotte City Directory, 1902.
Charlotte City Directory, 1889.
Deed 60-2, William Johnston sold land to the Ada Manufacturing Company
for $3675.00; Deed 60-38, S.B. Christenbury sold a parcel to the Ada
Manufacturing Company for $150.00.
Sanborn Map, 1896, 1900.
“The Ada Mills” The Daily News, January 8, 1889.
Sanborn Map, 1911.
“The Alpha Mills” The Daily News, January 9, 1889; “The Victor
Mills” The Daily News, January 22, 1889.
“Charlotte’s Industries” The Daily News, January 23, 1889.
Holland Thompson, From the Cotton Field to the Cotton Mill. A Study
of the Industrial Transition in North Carolina, (Ph.D. Dissertation,
Columbia University, 1906), p. 74.
Hanchett, Sorting Out the New South City, p. 52. 24.
Tompkins, Cotton Mill, Commercial Features, p. 116
Mecklenburg County Record of Corporations, Book 1, p. 377. The
incorporators were J.H. Weddington, J.H. McAden, F.D. Alexander, W.H.
Belk, J. Graham, E.L. Keisler, Thomas Haughton, E.N. Clemence, W.E.
Maxwell, John Van Landingham, W.R. Robertson, A.H. Washburn, and James
C. Long. Each of the incorporators owned five shares of stock, with an
aggregate value of $6500.00
The building known as the Ada Manufacturing Company,
and located at 630 West 11th Street in Charlotte, North Carolina, is a
substantial remnant of an even larger 1889 cotton mill building.
Approximately one-third of the present one-story brick building, the western
section of the mill, was razed to make room for a nearby highway. The
existing building now measures approximately 237’ wide and 75’ deep and
consists primarily of the mill’s large carding and spinning room. The room
was originally 100’ wider, having measured approximately 330’ wide by 75’
deep. The carding and spinning room abutted a narrow but deep 30’ X 120’
picker room, which has been entirely destroyed. The carding and spinning
room along with the picker room formed a T-plan. The mill operated with a
coal-fired steam boiler, which sat directly in front of the picker room, and
would have featured a tall brick smokestack. No historic photographs or drawings
of the Ada Manufacturing Company have been located, but the layout of the
mill would have been similar to that of the 1893 Statesville Cotton Mills,
which was also designed by D. A. Tompkins.
freestanding 35’ X 100’ brick cotton warehouse, now demolished, sat adjacent
to the picker room, approximately 20’ from the northwest corner of the
larger mill building.
the topography of the mill site was relatively flat and open. By 1911 the
mill was nearly surrounded with a congestion of rail lines and sidings to
the east and the west of the mill, and a major intersection of the Seaboard
and Southern Railroads directly to the south. By the 1970’s the topography
of the site changed drastically with the construction of a raised-earth
highway ramp to the north of the mill. The ground to the north of the mill
now rises sharply to form the ramp which is taller than the mill’s two
towers, and which also necessitated the destruction of one-third of the
building. Views of the mill’s principal south elevation are obscured by
massive webbed concrete piers that support a raised section of highway I-277.
The piers are set at various angles to accommodate the various railroad
right-of-ways. To the south of the site is one of Charlotte’s best
collections of historical industrial buildings, including the Interstate
Mills on Seaboard Street, the John B. Ross Warehouse, and the People's Ice
and Coal Company.
that when intact, the Ada Manufacturing Company illustrated many of the
basic tenants of D. A. Tompkins’s mill design philosophy. Tompkins believed
that a good mill design incorporated only one or two floors. He also
suggested that a mill site required between five and ten acres of land.
It appears that the Ada site, which has shrunk to less than three acres, was
originally four to eight acres. The isolation of the picker room with a
firewall and the separation of the power plant from the principal section of
the mill are prescribed by Tompkins as a protection against fire. Other
design details associated with Tompkins can be identified on the extant
section of the mill.
one-story Ada Manufacturing Company features brick construction laid in
American Bond. The building is approximately 237’ wide and 75’ deep, and is
covered by a moderately pitched roof with asphalt shingles.
most distinctive feature of the building is the Italianate two-story tower
projecting from the façade. Towers were a common feature of southern mill
buildings in general, and of D. A. Tompkins's designs in particular. Towers
were employed to house the water tanks for fire sprinkler systems, such as
the Grinnell system found in this mill, and these water tanks needed to be
located at least 12 feet above the sprinkler heads. A second smaller tower
for this use was erected on the rear elevation of the Ada Manufacturing
Company. However, early Sanborn maps indicate that the front tower of this
mill housed the mill offices. It appears that the use of towers became so
well associated with mills, that the form was employed for other purposes.
Later expansions at the nearby Alpha mill resulted in a prominent
Romanesque/Medieval three-story tower that was purely decorative.2
projecting from the front of the Ada Manufacturing Company is three bays
wide and two bays deep, and is now, like the entire façade, coated with
stucco. A single door opening is centered in the tower’s façade. It
appears that the door opening may have been enlarged when a concrete loading
dock was added. The outline of a small frame gabled roof addition can be
seen around the door. Stucco may obscure other first-floor openings. Above
the door is a recessed panel. The second-floor openings are symmetrical,
with three relatively narrow segmental arch window openings. The tower’s east
elevation is pierced by more segmental arch window openings, with the two
lower openings shorter than those on the second floor. The west elevation’s
fenestration is not symmetrical, with a low arched door opening tucked-in
close to the carding and spinning room wall. The tower’s most distinctive
feature is its low-pitched pyramidal roof with a bell-curve flare. The
eaves are supported by large curved brackets.
TOWER - SOUTH ELEVATION
principal section of the mill, the large carding and spinning room is now 30
bays wide, based on the rear elevation, and five bays deep, based on the
east elevation. The façade is coated with stucco, and nearly all of the
building’s original bays in-filled with masonry. An original door is
located in the façade in the fourth bay east of the front tower. The door
is of plank construction, and is bordered by fluted trim. Evidence of a
small doorway shelter can be seen in the stucco over the door, and the
outline mirrors the distinctive shape of the tower roof. The door is
centered between two sets of four segmental arch window openings. Seven of
the eight openings have been altered and transformed into two separate
upper and lower window openings. To the east of these openings, a large
floor-to-ceiling height door opening was cut into the wall and covered with
a steel door. To the east of the steel door, a second large door opening was
cut into the wall, and a concrete loading dock was erected. To the east of
the loading dock, the long expanse of the façade is blank, although Sanborn
Maps indicate that window bays also pierced this section of the mill. The
eave along the façade is supported by large exposed and decoratively
boxed-in rafter tails.
Manufacturing Company’s rear elevation and east elevations possess the
highest degree of integrity. Despite the in-filling of all of the window
openings and the destruction of 100’ of the rear wall, these elevations are
the most intact unaltered.
building’s east elevation is five bays wide, with a large door opening, now
in-filled with blocks, centered between 4’x11’ segmental arch window
openings. Early maps show that this elevation fronted on Smith St. The
brick wall features a stepped parapet, and is topped with terra cotta
tiles. Stucco was not applied to this elevation, and some of the bricks
show extreme weathering.
building’s rear elevation extends for twenty-four bays from the buildings
northeast corner, to a two-story brick water tower. From the tower, the
building extends four bays to the building’s northwest corner. All of the
bays contain a single 4’x11’ segmental arch window opening, all of which
have been in-filled with brick. The same decorative treatment of the rafter
ends found on the facade, continues to the rear elevation.
distinctive feature of the rear elevation is the square water tower. This
two-story brick structure projects from the rear wall, and a low arched
opening dominates the north elevation of the tower. On the second-story a
small segmental arch opening contains a louvered wooden vent. The tower’s
east, north, and west walls finish in flat parapets topped with terracotta
tiles. The south wall of the tower rises above the principal section of the
mill, and is topped by a flat composition roof, surrounded on three sides by
the parapet walls.
WATER TOWER - NORTH ELEVATION
The mill’s west elevation is of
recent construction, having been built to enclose the building after the
demolition of the western section of the mill. The west elevation mirrors
the stepped parapet form of the east elevation, but is constructed of hollow
masonry blocks. The wall is blank and is topped with terracotta tiles.
Significance of the
Architecture of the Ada Manufacturing Company in Terms of the City of
Charlotte and Mecklenburg County
Manufacturing Company is among the oldest surviving examples of cotton mill
construction in Mecklenburg County. Four cotton mills were constructed
in the immediate vicinity of Charlotte prior to 1890, and some original sections of three of these
mills, the Ada, the Alpha, and the Charlotte Cotton Mills, still exist.
With approximately 20,000 square feet of extant building, the Ada is the
most intact of Charlotte’s pre-1890 mills.
Ada Manufacturing Company is first and foremost a utilitarian industrial
building, the strong influence of the Italianate Style can be seen in its
design. The Italianate Style was compatible with mill designs because they
shared some common elements, such as arched windows and low-pitched roofs.
Historian Dr. Tom Hanchett writes, “Commercial
architecture in Victorian Charlotte was not subject to as many changing
styles as was residential design. The blocky form of the Italianate proved
economical to build, and it remained popular through the turn of the
Italianate homes such as the
McManaway House, and
Ingleside can be found throughout Mecklenburg County. Fully realized
examples of the Italianate Style among commercial buildings are more rare.
The 1892 Atherton Cotton Mills, also designed by D. A. Tompkins, lacks the
Ada mill's distinctive Italianate influenced tower, but shares details such
as the low-pitched roof and ornamental rafter end.
D. A. Tompkins
Cotton Mill, Commercial Features. A
Text-Book for the Use of Textile Schools and Investors. With Tables Showing
Cost of Machinery and Equipments for Mills Making Cotton Yarns and Plain
2. Dr. Dan L.
Morrill, "Survey and Research Report, Alpha Cotton Mill,"
Charlotte-Mecklenburg Historic Landmarks Commission, 1983.
Dr. Thomas W. Hanchett, "Charlotte Architecture:
Design Through Time Part 1," Charlotte-Mecklenburg Historic LAndmarks